Fire Sprinkler System
Fire sprinkler system is a simple but significantly active part of a domestic or commercial premises automatic fire protection system which is installed in ceilings or side walls, the system is composed of a water supply, a water distribution piping system, fire booster pump set and sprinkler heads.
The sprinkler discharges water automatically when a fire is detected, instead of triggering by smoke, this system is dependent on heat. It controls or extinguishes the fire, so is both a fire detection and automatic suppression system.
Fire sprinkler types
There are basic four types of fire sprinkler system:
- Wet Pipe Fire Sprinkler System
- Dry Pipe Sprinkler System
- Deluge Sprinkler System
- Pre-action Type Fire Sprinkler System
Wet Pipe Fire Sprinkler System
In a wet pipe fire sprinkler system, the most common type of sprinkler system in residential buildings, cold water is stored under pressure in the pipes and is released immediately by sprinkler heads after detecting certain degree of heat which is a predetermined level of heat and this level is detected by the bulb in sprinkler head and this system is followed by the automatic start of fire booster pump set.
Dry Pipe Sprinkler System
Dry pipe sprinkler system is widely used in those countries where temperature drop down to freeze the water and this system takes a bit more time to activate and used in unheated/unoccupied buildings where pipes may freeze and burst with cold water. Nitrogen gas or pressurized air is stored in the pipes, connected to a non-insulating water storage tank. On activation by bursting sprinkler heads, the air leaks out of the pipes, causing the water to flow through the pipes to the sprinkler heads.
Deluge Sprinkler System
Deluge sprinkler systems are usually used in areas where rapid fire damage is a major concern, such as warehouse loading with highly flammable materials and high-rise buildings. In these systems, the nozzle is always open. They are activated by an alarm check valve assembly that opens a water release valve and system starts.
Pre-action sprinkler system
Pre-action sprinkler systems are a combination of wet and dry pipe systems, typically used in areas at high-risk of water damage. Water is not stored in the pipes until a fire is detected, when the water is released to the sprinkler heads. The response time is as fast as a standard wet pipe sprinkler system.